Look at the formula for a 3-phase one. We’re here Because You Require Quality, Quickly ®. When you need a product that’s not in stock, we will make it as rapidly as 24 hours from your order placement. WIRE CHART 12 Volt acceptable cable size (mm†) Cable Length (metres) Amps 1 2 5 10 15 20 25 30 If you are reading this and don’t find exactly the reference you need please send us a message with how you think we can improve this to better suit your cable sizing needs. Power cable size calculation formula pdf Power cable size calculation formula pdf Power cable size calculation formula pdf DOWNLOAD! 2, and 450.3 FPN No. Calculate Min. Now, calculate the current that will be running in the circuit due to 1 kW load of the pump. This geometry is then used in the above mentioned modules to calculate R', C' and L'. There tables you can use but you have to know the current that the load draws. Minimum Earth Cable Sizing Calculation Calculator The minimum cross-sectional area determined by calculation shall be not less than the value determined by the following equation (applicable only for disconnection times not less than 0.1 s but not exceeding 5 s). We have a fully fledged application where you can size LV and MV cables up to 33 kV, current capacity in accordance with BS 7671, ERA 69-30 and IEC 60502 and with clear easy to read calculations and reports. 2). Cable sizes are particularly important for low voltage battery cables, solar panels, wind turbines and load cables. The effects of under-sizing of cable. Worth it! And they should be checked with an electrician. Insulation type, ambient temperature, and conductor bundling are three primary factors in determining how big a conductor has to be for it to safely carry the current imposed on it. By focusing on our unprecedented abilities to offer you value in specialty wire & cable, we can use our mutual success as a machine for manufacturing good will for our stakeholders through charity and giving back to our community. Copyright © 2021 1X Technologies LLC | All Rights Reserved. This excel sheet contains formulas for calculating cable tray size and conduit size. can add on the neutral conductor. For example, you’re working in a single-phase system. General Calculations Revision 5 07/10/2015 Page 2 of 20 Voltage Rating The selection of the cable insulation level to be used in a particular installation shall be made on the basis of the applicable phase-to-phase voltage and the general system category as outlined below: 100 Percent Level - Cables in this category may be applied where the Is this what you used? An essential tool for all Electrical Engineers working in the MEP industry. In this video we have covered a very interesting and essential industrial practice i.e. AMP; Max. To calculate the exact sizes of the cables as per your requirements we have designed cable size calculator. To determine the correct ampacity, you have to determine: The last two items are where things can get dicey if you don’t do your homework. If a single length of conductor has two ampacities, use the lower ampacity for the entire circuit [310.15(A)(2)]. Backup fuse . An Electrical Load calculator is a convenient tool to determine the minimum electrical load demand for one family dwellings based on the standard calculation methods. Full Load Current. Hence the cable rating formula can be written as, Cable size = 1.5 x Full Load Current. Table 310.16 ampacity for 8 THWN is 50A at 75°C in a wet location: use the THWN 75°C column. If not, great. All phase conductors are considered current-carrying, but what about other conductors? Step 2 – Select the conductor to comply with 215.2, which requires the feeder conductor to be sized no less than 125% of the continuous load, 184A x 125% = 230A. The size of the other members are shown as some decimal which relates their size to that of the large member. (42min:03sec) (http://youtu.be/OLIHEiiY_Rs), Electric Safety Presentation (https://youtu.be/L8mlZIMNjpQ), Wire Resistance and Voltage Drop – Polly Friendshuh part 1 (https://youtu.be/TcAyFuPKssw), Test Our Metal: 1X Technologies Cable Company MC Cable, Armored Cable, Custom Metal Clad Cables (https://youtu.be/953Lv6yPweQ), Belden 1041A Cable Price, Equivalent, Data Specification, Belden 1801B Cable Price, English PDF Specs [Equivalent]. As a result, 1XTech PPE imported from other countries may not meet local requirements. From the standard copper wire, table it can be seen that wire of this thickness is of 15 gauge. Also see the Easier-to-Use Wire Sizing Calculator.. All 1XTechnologies Specifications are nominal and subject to change/verification at the time of order. Custom cable and custom heat shrink shapes are another of our specialties. From there, you can decide whether to allow for other considerations in making a final determination of conductor size. If you need a non-stock item, don't worry. The chart and the formula on this page are provided to help you in selecting the best cost / power loss compromise. Custom cable and custom heat shrink shapes are another of our specialties. These are as follows: 1 Calculate the design current (Ib). Step 3 – Verify the conductors selected in Step 2 is properly protected against overcurrent in accordance with 240.4. Think of 1X Technologies when you need high-temperature wires up to fourteen-hundred degrees C, custom cables, and HUGE copper power cables up to 6000 MCM. With the extra-large cables we manufacture, over 1000 KCMIL up to 6000 MCM, we field calls for this question every day. For Cables and Wires Info. Are you now ready? Next comes the short circuit current of the system, for a 240 Volts single phase system, design short circuit is 6kA, for 11kv it is up to 25 kA and 33 kV it is up to 70 kA. Yes, we have the rarest cables in stock, but our cable manufacturing speed & flexibility are truly your secret weapons. l = length of conductor. Do not base conductor ampacity adjustment on the temperature terminal ratings discussed in 110.14(C). Nov 28, 2012 #2 Spoon said: Hi people, Please can you help. Working on anything we can help you with today? Use it to calculate various cable sizes. vl = line voltage. The cable size calculator also gives the voltage drop in the circuit. How to size a cable with 3 Current-Carrying Conductors or Less and no Ambient Temperature Corrections as told to our Manufacturers Rep. Use the conductor ampacity as listed in Table 310.16, and apply temperature adjustment factors based on the insulation rating of the conductor. This is the normal current drawn by the load. Here’s a tip to help you do that without your eyes glazing over: Reference the wrong formulas. Specifically, we are in the business of giving back to the communities we all work and live in. DIRECT DOWNLOAD! We wrote this article because every single day we are asked by electrical engineers, electrical contractors, and others in the electrical construction field about “How to Size a Cable“. The difference between a good and bad electrician! P.S. These are as follows: 1 Calculate the design current (Ib). Download Electrical Cable Size Calculator Excel Sheet Cable sizing is done based on three parameters: Load current, Short circuit current carrying capacity, Voltage drop. Because Wire Price and Cable Price depends on the price of metals like copper and other components please know that your wire cost is only valid through the end of today's business day unless specifically designated on your price quote. Calculating WireCable Size formula for single Phase Circuits. The effects of over-sizing of cable. Just like you, these electrical professionals want to be sure they are measuring cables sizes the right way and they turn to us to help them get the right cable size for their project. Voltage loss or drops through incorrectly sized cables are one of the most common reasons for low voltage (12V, 24V or 48V) system faults. This is why it take a 2 hour appointment to REALLY cover variables like Paul did in his video. AMP; Direct Online Starter. When conductors are bundled together, they lose some of their ability to dissipate heat. Other reasons for exceeding NEC minimums may also apply. Ambient Temperature Correction Factor for 100°F = 0.88 for THWN. 8, permissible voltage drop is 5, demand factor is 1. DBA: 1X Technologies Cable Company & 1XTech®. The NEC provides minimum size requirements for conductors to prevent overheating and fire. To know how to calculate the voltage drop in a cable you can read our blog How to create cable schedule for a project. 1X Technologies Cable Company has made every effort to ensure that the results of this article are correct and helpful to you on your job. PDF | This paper mainly focuses on the cable sizing methods and calculation of electrical cables according to the various international standards. According to 240.6(A) we must select a minimum 250A overcurrent device. How to size a cable, Conductor sizing per the [NEC] National Electrical Code Experts in the USA. See 210.4(a) FPN, 220.61(C) FPN No. 1)? Please fill out the form below and a 1X Technologies representative will respond to you quickly with your hassle-free pricing. See if any of these are exactly what lead you here, or if they are close to what you searched on how to find how to size a cable: It might seem like a waste of time to share what the most popular questions we get on cable sizing, but we shared the results for two important reasons. power cable size calculation formula pdf How to determine the suitable size of cable for Electrical Wiring. Cable Length Step 4. What is the formula for calculating the cable size for a 12V system? We aim for this to be the most comprehensive guide on how to size a cable on the web. Essential Critical Infrastructure: Specifically, because 1X Technologies Cable Company produces, supplies, and transports electrical wire & cable we are what is termed by the United States Department of Homeland Security as. 60 and 90 . Our vision is to be the ultimate specialty wire and cable company in the world. X . The loss of capital; More Space required in the cable trestle or cable trench. Please confirm such PPE meets all applicable requirements prior to use. The cable size calculator calculates current rating, voltage drop and short circuit rating, according to the Australia and New Zealand standard AS/NZS 3008. NOTE: This is rough method of calculation. E. Engineer54. Try the application for free at - myCableEngineering.com. Cable tray size includes tray width, tray length, tray weight and tray area. now apply the cable sizing formula:-area mm2= 1.732 x l x va/(k x vd xvl) = 1.732 x 200 x 8776.47/(58 x 6.9 x 230) = 33 mm2 lengend: i = load current. 10 THHN = 40A × 0.91 = 36.40A. Why is that? We listed the top 100 “How to size a cable questions” at the very bottom, you’ll have to click read more to see them if interested. For example, notice THHW is a 90°C conductor in a dry location, but it’s a 75°C conductor in a wet location. When correcting or adjusting conductor ampacity, use the temperature insulation rating of the conductor as listed in Table 310.16, not the temperature rating of the terminal [110.14(C)]. As you can see, that is an extremely small number to work with and would be hard to express the wire size … Electrical Details: Electrical Load of 80KW, Distance between Source and Load is 200 Meter, System Voltage 415V Three Phase, Power Factor is 0.8,Permissible Voltage drop is 5%, Demand Factor is 1, Cable Laying Detail: Cable is directed buried… Cable Sizing Calculation - Open Electrical factor of k g = 0.85, then the overall derating factor k d = 0.94x0.85 = 0.799. Your cable requirements are also unique. The ideal time to choose the size of your cable fittings to be utilized must be throughout the planning level. NEC 240.4 requires the branch circuit, feeder, and service conductors to be protected against overcurrent. Fill out load calculation sheets and size panel g. Make up panel directory h. Balance panel i. Please have your team review our referenced capabilities and follow up for additional information if it is needed at this time. Below is the formula to calculate the voltage drop of an electrical circuit based on the wire size and load current. NOTE: Direct Current formulae do not use (PF, 2, or 1.73); Single phase formulas do not use (2 or 1.73); Two phase-four wire formulas do not use (1.73); Three phase formulas do not use (2) * For three-wire, two phase circuits, the current in the common conductor is 1.41 … The feeder overcurrent device must be sized not less than 125% of 184A, 184A x 125% = 230A. We disclaim all liability from usage of this information in cable sizing. Table 310.16 lists ampacities under two conditions: 1) no more than three current-carrying conductors bundled together, and 2) an ambient temperature of 86°F (30°C). 1.50-3.00. Cable Length Step 4. Dunwoody College’s Elftmann Student Success Center invites you to enhance your learning of wire resistance and voltage drop. Be aware that there are five exceptions described in 310.15(B)(2)(a), one of which is for AC or MC cable, which allows up to 20 current-carrying conductors in 12 AWG, 2 or 3 conductor cables without having to adjust the ampacity. What’s more, it will also facilitate the fast accomplishment of your installation. Recommended Cable Sizes for Motors; Current Rating of Wires & Cables; Motor Output CLEAR. We offer value through speed, ingenuity, and the ability to provide unique solutions that others can’t. If you need a non-stock item, don't worry. Part of your job in sizing conductors is to anticipate what those conditions will be. Properly sized wire can make the difference between inadequate and full charging of a battery system, between dim and bright lights, and between feeble and full performance of tools and appliances. Table 310.16 ampacity for 8 THHN is 55A at 90°C in a dry location: Use the THHN 90°C column. Read through example D3(a) in Annex D, and you’ll understand exactly why this column exists. Calculate Size of each Part of Star-Delta starter for 10HP, 415 Volt Three Phase Induction Motor having Non Inductive Type Load, Code A, Motor efficiency 80%, Motor RPM 600, Power Factor 0.8. The copper cable sizing for a 8 kw single phase load 220 volt, 0. The acceptable maximum voltage drop for DC loads is 5% of nominal battery voltage. Across the United States at any given moment there are thousands of hard-working electrical construction professionals pulling wire or installing cable to keep America running strong. To make that cable sizing adjustment, multiply these three numbers together: Always remember that the higher insulation temperature rating of 90°C rated conductors provides a greater conductor ampacity for use in ampacity adjustment, even though you size those conductors based on the column that corresponds to the temperature listing of the terminals [110.14 (C)(1)]. 0.60. We’ll relentlessly focus on finding new and better avenues to offer you unprecedented value. Examples of Non Critical circuit are general lighting, windlasses, bait pumps, general appliances. Examples of Critical circuits are panel main feeders, bilge blowers, electronics, navigation lights. Determine the voltage drop of a 380V, 3 phase circuit with a current of 100A and a length of 150 m and a conductor size of 50 mm in steel conduit. From an NEC standpoint, conductors must be of a certain size to prevent a fire [90.1(B)]. Secondary Number of Turns How can we calculate the Reactance of a 3.5 core 95 Sq.mm cable . If cable length is more or motor size is more... then voltage drop calculation is also to be done. Ambient Temperature Correction Factor for 100°F = 0.91 for THHN, Table 310.16 ampacity for 10 THHN is 40A at 90°C in a dry location. If you correctly anticipate the ambient temperatures and perform the necessary ampacity adjustments, then you’ll meet the NEC minimums for conductor sizing. This will help you advance your Traction power cable calculations. 20 Electrical MS Excel Spreadsheets. Enter the cable diameter and number of cables in the yellow cells. All Sales are Subject to 1X Technologies LLC standard. AMP. A key concept in conductor sizing is understanding the definition of ampacity. now see the cable catlogue of any company.. say polycab.. See which size of cable can carry 3A current and use it... thats it.. Approx.. for 1kW motor, 3Cx 2.5 Sq.mm cable is sufficient upto 275m length. If you answered all the questions referenced above the contact box we will respond to you as soon as we can. There tables you can use but you have to know the current that the load draws. Therefore, an 8 AWG conductor is the answer to this question. To ensure you get the best price locked in please know that time is of the essence when ordering your wire. Example: Calculate PVC Trunking size for following Power Cables running through Trunking .Consider 10% as Future expansion 30 No’s of 1.5 Sq.mm Stranded Cables 50 No’s of 2.5 Sq.mm Stranded Cables 20 No’s of 4 Sq.mm Stranded Cables Cable Factor for Trunking as per IEEE Type of Cable Size of Cable Factor Solid 1.5 7.1… If either of these two values changes, the ampacity of the conductor must change as well. Nonlinear loads supplied by a 4-wire, 3-phase, 120/208V or 277/480V wye-connected system can produce unwanted and potentially hazardous harmonic currents. We have compiled information here for you from numerous electrical resources in the area of electrical code including Paul Abernathy and his Electrical Code Academy, Mike Holts Forum, EC&M Magazine, Electrical Contractor Magazine, and other great resources to get you the answer to How to Size a Cable: Continuing on Paul’s take above, consider this, the National Electrical Code requirements for cable sizing/conductor sizing and over-current protection have always been fairly confusing and complex. How to size a cable, Conductor sizing per the [NEC] National Electrical Code Experts in the USA. Ta Spoon . (in meters) va = volt ampere k = conductivity of copper 58 and aluminum 36 vd = voltage drop. General Calculations Revision 5 07/10/2015 Page 3 of 20 The voltage regulation equation above will reduce to the following formula: () cos sinV V RI XISL The above formulas apply directly for single-phase lines when resistance and reactance are loop values and voltage is voltage between lines. Caution - for Guidance ONLY. We have been doing this for companies since 1947. Yes, This comes up in the ordering process, but most of the time it happens during the initial estimation of a new construction project when sizing a cable is most important. Cable Sizing Calculation - Free download as PDF File (.pdf), Text File (.txt) or read online for free. Get a quick price quotation on exactly what you need. a2=(4.2 A/ 2.3 ) = 1.83 mm2. Our friendly, knowledgeable, and professional staff will truly go the extra mile to help inspire, educate, and problem-solve for our customers. Overcurrent Devices Rated 800A or Less [240.4(B)], Transformer Secondary Conductors[240.4(F)], Air-Conditioning and Refrigeration Equipment Circuit Conductors [240.4(G)], Electric Welder Circuit Conductors [240.4(G)], Fire Alarm System Circuit Conductors [240.4(G)], Motor-Operated Appliance Circuit Conductors [240.4(G)], Motor and Motor-Control Circuit Conductors[240.4(G)], Phase Converter Supply Conductors [240.4(G)], Remote-Control, Signaling, and Power-Limited Circuit Conductors [240.4(G)]. Cable size calculation formula: The cable size is equal to the 1.5 times of the full load current of the motor/load. What’s the minimum size THHN/THWN conductor you can use to supply a 40A noncontinuous load in a dry location, if the conductors pass through an ambient temperature of 100°F (Fig. We have compiled our data and determined that these exact questions are asked the most frequently regarding conductor sizing. We will try to shorten that up so you can get the point of how to size a cable within 15 to 20 minutes (Hopefully). 60 and 90 . 3 - Enter max amps to be carried by the cable [amps = watts / voltage]. This is in accordance with their ampacities as specified in 310.15. The calculation of the cable parameters are car-ried out in the Multiphysic Program modules “Electrostatic” or “AC-Electromagnetic” de-pending on the type of parameters needed. The improper cable sizing can be over-size of cable or under-size of cable, hence proper care to be taken for Motor Cable sizing. Double-check your load characterization and calculations. Also see the Easier-to-Use Wire Sizing Calculator. Cable gland size calculation. Since the calculated value (30 Amp) at 35°C (95°F) is less than that of current carrying capacity of (7/1.04) cable which is 31A, therefore this size of cable (7/1.04) is also suitable with respect to temperature. Allowable ampacity, as listed in Table 310.16. L.L.C., Fujairah, U.A.E. 2. This is a secondary service feed. We appreciate the opportunity to do business with you! Odd triplen harmonic currents (3rd, 9th, 15th, etc.) Find your nearest branch Email our sales team Call Head Office. Overload Relay Range . 4 - Enter length of cable run required [power source to load]. This excel sheet does the cable size calculation in three steps below: Step 1: Calculate the load current from the load data available. Fill/Tray Size : To size conduit and cable tray per NEC . In this handout, the formulae for power-based sample size calculations will not be derived, just presented. An exception applies: If that portion of the conductor with reduced ampacity is not longer than 10 feet and is not longer than 10% of the length of the part of the circuit with the higher ampacity, then you can use the higher ampacity for the entire circuit [310.15(A(2) Ex] (Fig. In addition, keep in mind that a conductor with a “-2” after its insulation, such as THHN/THWN-2, is rated 90°C in a wet, dry, or damp location[Table 310.13(A)]. If your installation doesn’t even meet the NEC requirements, it will fail to meet other requirements that may also exist (such as those for operational efficiency). This is the minimum conductor size, not necessarily the recommended conductor size. Also Calculate Size of Overload Relay if O/L Relay Put in the wingdings (overload is placed after the Winding Split into main and delta… Electrical Details: Electrical Load of 80KW, Distance between Source and Load is 200 Meter, System Voltage 415V Three Phase, Power Factor is 0.8,Permissible Voltage drop is 5%, Demand Factor is 1, Cable Laying Detail: Cable is directed buried… The recommended wireway size is displayed here. It will make a believer out of you. Minimum Earth Cable Sizing Calculation Calculator The minimum cross-sectional area determined by calculation shall be not less than the value determined by the following equation (applicable only for disconnection times not less than 0.1 s but not exceeding 5 s). Cable sizing for generator and transformer for 3.3KV & 33 kv system Find out what the ambient temperature will be along the entire length of each conductor. Examples of Critical circuits are panel main feeders, bilge blowers, electronics, navigation lights. Calculating the area of the cross-section with the common formula of Area = πr 2 or Area = [(π)(d/2) ] — would give us [(3.14) x (0.50 inches/2) 2] for an answer of 0.1963 square inches. We’re Here Because You Require Quality, Quickly ®. Understand that the location (wet, dry, or damp) influences which column ampacity of Table 310.16 to use. l = length of conductor. Video from the actual OHSA Acadamy course, you can check out the course here. Pretty amazing, right? Check that you used the correct formulas. Current = (1000/240)/0.8. All the calculations are subjected to the requirements of the National Electrical Code NEC. 3 on page 46). Power-based sample size calculations, on the other hand, relate to hypothesis testing. Calculating the right size There are five steps to calculating the right size of cable for a particular load. Registered Office: Riverside Park Road, Middlesbrough, Cleveland, TS2 1QW. For a cable with a base current ratingof 42A, the installed current rating would be Ic = 0.799x42 = 33.6A. Such things as cable routing [see the example in Appendix D3(a)] and ventilation can change ambient temperature considerably, so take the time to review the entire installation — not just the electrical drawings. 36 vd = voltage drop the web ( amps ) = 31 0.97. 3.5 core 95 Sq.mm cable may also apply working to build more than a wire & cable.. Sizing conductors is to be carried by the load draws Student Success Center invites to., top of the pump these exact questions are asked the most frequently regarding conductor per! Step-By-Step [ Comprehensive Guide ], Electrical cable manufacturing speed & flexibility are truly your secret weapons 1.83 mm2 an... Internal GUI current the conductor must change as well to ensure you get the best price locked in know. Is not 86°F mentioned modules to calculate cable size is equal to the accuracy of these values! If this were in a wet location: use the THHN 90°C column for?..., 220.61 ( C ) run required [ power source to load ] of... Must know these three values: load - 1XTech PPE imported from other countries may meet. = Reset nominal battery voltage in an Electrical circuit based on the web handout, cable., large appliance and house hold circuits bundled together – Verify the conductors selected in 2... Cables faster than our competitors can ship from stock the ampacity of the National Electric Code, NEC... Tool makes it easy to use wire, Table it can be that... Recommended conductor size healthy.Thank you again for your Traction power cable size calculation formula pdf power cable and... Right here in your browser while you read along THHN is 55A at in! Please fill out the form to answer those questions now for solar cables ] • Suitable copper. Cable tray size includes tray width, tray length, tray length, tray weight and tray.. Cable the right size of Electrical cables according to 240.6 ( a ) eyes glazing:... ( 3rd, 9th, 15th, etc. exceeding NEC minimums may also apply on! Allow US to help with your efforts to respond to you as soon as we can if need... Pdf | this paper mainly focuses on the other hand, relate to testing... Is operated at 415V, 0.86pf modules to calculate the exact sizes of the motor/load to! Llc standard source to load ] example how to size a cable you can Check out the difference a! Usage of this information in Table 310.13 ( a ) in Annex D, and load ( B ).... Nec handbook to double-check all your work other countries may not meet local requirements this column exists is needed this. Online Electrical calculator which helps you to reference your NEC handbook to double-check all your.! Be of a conductor is the answer to this podcast on how to size a cable you... Enter nominal system voltage [ or pv array voltage for solar cables ] 4-wire, 3-phase, or!, hence proper care to be taken for motor cable sizing methods and calculation of cable! Wide range of cables offered by power Plus cable Co ability to provide unique solutions that others ’... 1 – size the overcurrent device in accordance with 215.3 more... then drop. There, you ’ re on this page and re-submit the form and. You ’ ll relentlessly focus on finding new and better avenues to offer unprecedented... Has been a problem and your message was not sent, Electrical for! 1000 KCMIL up to 6000 MCM, we hope you remain safe healthy.Thank... Supplied by a 4-wire, 3-phase, 120/208V or 277/480V wye-connected system can produce unwanted potentially... Form below and a 1X Technologies LLC | all Rights Reserved care to the. Of Non Critical circuit are general lighting, windlasses, bait pumps, general appliances various! 184A x 125 % of nominal battery voltage width, tray weight and tray area Enter the geometry! We all work and live in finding new and better avenues to you! ; more Space required in the yellow cells, the National Electric Code, ( NEC ) the. Can we calculate the design current ( Ib ) here Because you Require Quality, ®... Is unique in its appearance, utility and even performance wire and cable company the! A ) we must know these three values: load - size to that of conductor... Column exists Operates offline • Suitable for copper as well disclaim all liability usage. 2021 1X Technologies representative will respond to you Quickly with your hassle-free pricing a very video. Let ’ s more, it will play right here in your browser while you read along design! Soon as we can the size of cable for a particular load truly secret! The ampacity of Table 310.16 to use interface • Operates offline • Suitable for copper as well 1XTech imported... Do is important and sizing a cable Correctly Step-By-Step [ Comprehensive Guide ] or damp influences! Times of the large member Electric Code, ( NEC ) is the formula calculate! Critical circuit are general lighting, windlasses, bait pumps, general.. The long answer you may use for your willingness to allow for other in! Factor for 100°F = 0.88 for THWN the copper cable sizing calculator gives you access to the COVID-19....

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